For over a quarter of a century, The Saturday Evening Post was unequalled in crafting and mediating a set of attitudes and beliefs that “explained and defined Americanism.”6 The magazine was a major source of political, social, and economic information about the United States and the world. The articles, fiction, illustrations, and advertisements functioned as how-to guides for living in twentieth-century America: they taught readers how to make sense of the vast and rapid changes in their new century; they explained how modern consumers should live and work in a society reshaped by technological advances and mass communication.7
Throughout the changes of the twentieth century, the magazine kept its readers current. It gave them the latest information on fashion and recommended which washing machine or television set to buy. It educated housewives on the best ways to care for their homes and families, and it provided business advice to men, promoting in particular the ideal of the self-made man. In soothing, clarifying prose, Post writers explained complicated new inventions. For example, in “Look Ma! There Goes Our House,” the reader finds an accessible account of the new technology that allowed engineers to move houses.8 Post writers also educated their readers about international and domestic politics, impassioned them through vivid coverage of sports events, and indulged their fantasies through serialized stories about romance, adventure, and history. The 1954 story “The Cradle Robber,” for instance, takes the reader to rustic Maine in the summertime, where a handsome widower falls in love with the beautiful nanny he hired to take care of his two children.9 Like Rockwell’s cover images, this type of fiction spirited readers away from the hectic exigencies of twentieth-century life into the carefree days of another realm.
The Post celebrated traditional, old-fashioned values such as hard work, thrift, and common sense; it argued that these virtues were crucial to success in a twentieth-century consumer society-all the while deflecting the contradictions between thrift and consumption, and between hard work and the new, laborsaving devices they advertised. All in all, the Post removed the jarring and frightening new aspects of the events, products, and rituals of the twentieth century and presented them in comforting and familiar ways. This is one of the many strategies the Post adopted to create its own American ideology, and the paradigm strongly shaped and influenced Rockwell’s imagery.
Lorimer, who approved every article, short story, editorial, and illustration before it went to press, had a great deal of control over Rockwell’s Post images. Rockwell’s own description of his meetings with Lorimer reveals how the editor’s ambitions and goals for the Post determined which images would become covers:
He never fidgeted over a decision or told me to leave the cover so that he could decide later whether or not to accept it. The first glance, its first impact was his criterion. “If it doesn’t strike me immediately,” he used to say, “I don’t want it. And neither does the public. They won’t spend an hour figuring it out. It’s got to hit them.” He rarely asked me to make minor changes-a red cap instead of a green, more smile on a kid. The cover was either good or bad.10
In his autobiography, Rockwell described how he caught on to Lorimer’s decision-making process and figured out how to “rig” these meetings so that he could control which sketches Lorimer would pick.11
His Post covers, then, resulted from a continual process of negotiation between artist and editor. Moreover, it can be argued that Lorimer’s vision of a unifying Americanism shaped not only Rockwell’s choice of subject matter, but also his style. In the 1920s, propelled by a need for change, Rockwell went to Europe, where he experimented with modernist styles of painting. When he returned to the United States, he took one of these paintings to Lorimer, who rejected it, deflating Rockwell and dampening his enthusiasm for further modernist experiments.12 While Rockwell’s cover images were chosen by Lorimer, the success of Rockwell’s work-his covers sold more magazines than those of other artists-may very well have reinforced Lorimer’s determination to continue his ideological course.13 Rockwell’s cover images not only epitomized the magazine’s ideology, but also sometimes took good- humored jabs at the very forms of modern mass communication celebrated in the magazine.
The twentieth century saw the invention of brand-new technologies that produced such things as automobiles, televisions, and space travel. The century also saw dramatic changes in the way wars were fought and presidential elections staged. Furthermore, there were tremendous upheavals in the arts and in race relations. Rockwell took these subjects and the impact they had on ordinary Americans as the focus of much of his art. Like the stories in the Post, Rockwell’s pictures wed the familiar and traditional to the unfamiliar and contemporary, creating reassuring visual narratives about change. Many of these images were meant to suggest that cherished values are not necessarily destined to disappear with the onslaught of new influences. Rather, those values can help guide us through the newness and keep us grounded in the familiar.
For example, The Law Student (Norman Rockwell: Pictures for the American People, page 146), the February 19, 1927, Post cover celebrating Abraham Lincoln’s birthday, features a young man in a grocer’s storeroom hunched over a cracker barrel, the surface of which is scratched and scraped with use; he is reading law books by the light of a kerosene lamp, much as Lincoln might have done. Posted above the figure are familiar photos of Lincoln by Mathew Brady.14 The edges of the photos and other bills and cards tacked on the wall are torn, bent, and yellowing with age. The whole scene, with its fading brown and beige color scheme, has an old-fashioned look with no obvious markers of twentieth-century life. The Post was reminding its 1927 audience that the qualities Lincoln represented-industry, thrift, determination, honesty-are timeless; indeed they were the important attributes that would help American youth succeed in the twentieth century. Reinforcing this visual homily, many of the themes of the short stories and articles in that issue explored the idea of hard work bringing success to anyone of any class or gender.15
Lincoln, the Horatio Alger model of rags-to-riches achievement, was the archetype of the small-town man who, without the benefit of formal education and through sheer determination and industriousness, created his own fame.16 The picture’s indeterminate time and setting reinforce the implicit message of the Horatio Alger myth-that anyone can prosper if they are industrious, honest, and thrifty. Moreover, the cards and pictures pinned above the student’s head recall the late-nineteenth-century American artist John F. Peto’s office-board and card-rack still-lifes, which frequently included pictures of Lincoln.17 Rockwell’s allusion to Peto strengthens the picture’s celebration of the past and tradition.18 The Post used many anniversaries of famous Americans-Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin-as focal points to bring its audience together in a national community. The frequency with which the Post relied on these figures from the past suggests a mass-media strategy to forge a widely popular version of American history that could stand as a buffer against the widespread immigration, devastating wars, and vast economic and political shifts of the times. Like the articles, fiction, and editorials of the Post, Rockwell’s images used the past to represent hope, reassurance, and belief at a time of dizzying change and an uncertain future.